Monday, September 23, 2013



We live in the world which is not illusory. In other words world exists as a reality this is a fact. According to Jain faith the world is composed of six elements. They are (1) Jiva, (2) Dharma, (3) Adharma, (4) Akasa, (5) Kala, (6) Pudgala. 

In the conception of Universe, all the philosophical problems are centered. No school of thought denies the existence of the Universe. Each tries to prove it by its own way.  Question has been asked by Goutam in connection with the conception of the Universe in the Bhagabati-Sutra to Lord Mahavira. In his reply Mahavira told that there are five extensive substances by which this world is composed. They are as folloes (1) Medium of motion, (2) Medium of test, (3) Space, (4) Soul, (5) Matter. These are called Panchastikayas or the five astikayas technically as these are primary constituent elements of the cosmos. Asti implies existence and kaya denotes volume. Astikaya therefore means a category which is capable of having spatial relations.

Kala is not regarded as a separate substance in the above conversation. But it is included in both the conscious and non-conscious substances. In the early days of Mahavira there were two schools of thought in Jainism. One was an exponent of the five extensive substances and the other believed the Universe is composed of six elements.

The latter school of thought took time as a separate and independent entity to the five extensive existences without regarding it as a extensive reality. In the Jain canons this is the rough estimate of the conception of Universe. It conceived time as non extended.

Jiva is the animate substance having consciousness. It is distinguished from the other five components which are called Ajivas or non-living substances. Soul or Jiva is characterized by knowledge and perception. From the empirical point of view the Jiva is enjoier and Ajiva is enjoyed.

In his famous book “Indian Philosophy” Dr. Radhakrishnan writes that which has no conscious but can be touched, tasted, seen and smelt is ajiba. This statement seems to be invalid in Jainism. Consciousness and unconsciousness are the real criteria of Jiva and Ajiva respectively. That which can be touched, tasted, seen and smelt is not meant as ajiva by the Jains. These four characteristics belong to Pudgala only. It is a matter which can be touched, tasted, seen and smelt because it has got a gross form. Hence Ajiva is not only a matter but something more than that.

Dharma is medium of motion. Adharma is medium of rest which falls in the category of ajiva along with the time and space. In other words Dharmastikaya, Adharmastikaya, akasastikaya and addha samaya which are formless also belong to the category of ajiva along with Pudgala- astikaya which has got a form. Hence the four characteristics of form can be ascribed to pudgala only and not to the ajiva as a whole. In other words pudgala is a part of ajiva only. So it is needless to say that the characteristics of a part anmot be attributed to the whole.

Matter or pudgala is ajiva, of course, but it does not mean that ajiva is matter only. Hence ajiva is something more than the pudgala or matter.

Hence the definition of ajiva given by Dr. Radhakrishnan is not correct from the jain poin of view Unconsciousness is correct and complete criterion of ajiva. Hence from the dualistic point of view the conscious substance is jiva while the unconscious substance is ajiva.

That which helps in the movement of jiva and pudgala, and unconscious matter is called Dharma. It does not move itself but it helps the movement of moving objects much like the railway lines which give inactive assistance to the movement of Locomative engines. That which helps the stoppage of objects which are to come to a standstill is known as adharma. This is quite opposite to Dharma. It is an indirect cause of rest. Container of substances, in Jainism, is called akasha. Room and space is allowed by Akasha only.

The substance which is the cause of change in things and create the past, the present, the future is known as Kala in modern science pudgala is a substance which is called matter. To all sense organs it is perceptible because it possesses sound, colour, taste, smell and touch s distinguished from the other inanimate substances which are not at all perceptible to the senses.

In accordance with the pluralistic conception of Jains there are six substances which are as follows.
1. Jivastikaya – This is extensive, conscious, immaterial substance.
2. Pudgalastikaya – Extensive, unconscious, material substance.
3. Dharmastikaya – Extensive, unconscious, immaterial substance in the form of medium of motion.
4. Adharmastikaya – Extensive, unconscious, immaterial substance in the form of medium of rest.
5. Akasastikaya – Extensive, unconscious, immertial substance in the form of space.
6. Samaya (Kala)- non extensive, unconscious, immaterial substance.

Modern science propounds the theory that the weight of matter remains the same as it ever was in its various forms and recognize matter as indestructible. This is known as the theory of constant weight. From the ancient times this theory of indestructibility has been preached by the Jain thinkers not only in respect of perceptible matter but also in respect of conscious jiva and the other form of immaterial substance.

Out of the elemental substances mentioned already, Dharma, adhrama, akasa are each of them one in number whereas kala, pudgala and jiva are infinite in number.

The infinite number of jivas may be classified under the following four categories found in this material world.

1) Hellish being, 2) Celestial or Divine beings 3) Human beings 4) Sub-human beings.

Beats, birds and all other beings inferior to man and possessing from one to fiveorgans of senses do come under sub-human beings. According to the actions they undergo ever recurringbirths in human or non-human existence in this Universe.

The jivas found in above four states of existences are impure because they are tinged with pudgala. They differ from the jivas in their pure and unadulterous state in as much as their qualities of knowledge, perception, power, happiness. So long as soul remains combined with the pudgala  it can not realize its own subline nature that consists of four infinities as follows:

1) Infinite perception, 2) Infinite Knowledge, 3) Infinite Power, 4) Infinite happiness

On account of their conjuction with pudgala the jibas roam about in this world. The material particles gather nd accumulate in the soul prades as through certain inlets called asrabs as the water gathers in a pond through its inlets.

For the flow of material particles in the soul the following are the main inlets.

1) Mithyatwa or non belief or perverted belief in the realities.

Jainism enjoins on everyone strict faith in the following principles.

a) That there are jibas having consciousness.
b) That there are ajibas or lifeless objects.
c) That the ajiba combines with the pudgal and roams about so long as it is in the state of bondage.
d) That due to certain causes, there is bondage between jiba and ajiba.
e) That in a happy or in a painful earthly state the bondage results.
f) That this bondage is temporary and does not change the nature of the soul in its essence.
g) For the fresh incoming of pudgala, that there is a way for stoppage.
h) That the existing bondage may be severed
i) That the soul may assume its pure natural state after liberation from the material and attain salvation

They are called the nine principles by the jain thinkers.

To be more precise, these nine principles are as follows:- 
Jiva (soul), Ajiba (non-soul), Punya (Auspicious karmas), Papa (in-auspicious karmas), Asrab (inflow of karmas), Samvara (Stoppage of karma), Bandha (Bondage of karma), Nirjara (Partial Shaking of the karmas), Mokshya (complete annihilation of karmas).

2) Avirati or vowlessness which implies non-abstinence in respect of sins and pleasure of sense organs.
3) Pramada or Lethargy – the want of zeal for observance of religion.
4) Kasaya or emotion of anger, pride, deceit, greed.
5) Yoja or activities of mind body and speech. The sinful application of these three instruments of action is the fifth asrab or inlet.
In this world Jiba and matter exists side by side. Jiba is surrounded by matter on all sides. Under the influence of above asrabas the jiba draws in the particles of the neighbouring matter from all directions which move in through the medium of Dharma and retain the same in the space of it pradesas by the help of adharma.

The particles of matter which enter the soul and get intermingled with it are called karma in the jain terminology.

The karmas are as follows:- 
1) Jnanavaraniya karma which obstructs the knowledge of the soul
2) Darshanavaraniya karma which obstruct the right faith.
3) Vedaniya karma which causes sensation.
4) Mohaniya karma which causes infatuation and effects right belief and right conduct.
5) Nama karma which determines the personality of a being.
6) Gotra karma which determines the gotra.
7) Ayu karma which determines the duration of life.
8) Antaraya karma which hinders charity, prosperity, pleasure of the soul.

So long as the karmas are got rid of the soul cannot be freed from worldly miseries. The soul come realize its own nature and obtain bliss only after the annihilation of karmas.

The inflow of karmas has got to be stopped. Then the existing karmas have got to be destroyed. The first process is technically called Samavaras and the second process is called nirjara.

The prevention of asrab by Samvara is the first step towards the liberation of soul. Samvara is the first half of the process and the second half is the Nirjara.

This being free of karmas, the soul become lighter and ascends up and goes to the abode of the Siddhas of liberated souls called Siddha Sila which is at the top of the spheres and resides there in excellent bliss. It cannot go up beyond that as dharma is not found thence-forward.

This deliverance of soul is called Moksha or Salvation.

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

Saivism in Odisha.


(Copy right protected by Dr. G.S. Tripathy)

Origin of Saivism traced back to the period of Harappa and Mahenjodaro centered round with Vedic civilization. In India it is one of the oldest forms of religions. From very early times, it would have existed in ODISHA. As attested to by archaeological monuments, origin of Saivism in the then Orissa can be traced back to 4th-5th century A.D. with its changing fortune in history. By the 4th-5th century A.D. . Saivsm became the dominant form of religion of Orissa when both Jainism and Buddhism have receded back to the back ground.

In the Bhaskareswar temple at Bhubaneswar, it has been observed a huge Siva Linga which was originally a part of Asokan Pillar built before Christ. From the close proximity of this temple a fragmentary Lion Capital was dugout by the famous historian Prof K.C. Panigrahi now in the museum at Bhubaneswar. On the body of the Lingam and the Lion Capital there are distinct evidences to show that both were destroyed deliberately. On the Lion Capital there are ample evidences to prove that such destruction took place in the 5th century A.D, “as there is a line of inscription in the script of the 5th Century A.D.” After heavy chiseling the pillar was converted into a Siva Linga. In front of the temple, the capital after deliberate breakage was buried within a very short distance from the Lingam. It appears that there was a violent struggle between the Buddhist and Saivas during that period at the manner in which a Buddhist monument was converted into a phallic emblem. A tradition seems to have been found in EKAMRA PURANA where it has been described the history of Bhubaneswar from the orthodox stand-point. There was a deadfall war which is said to have taken place between demons and Gods on the bank of the river Gandhabati. This river is now known as Gang flowing in the close proximity of BHUBANESWAR. In this war demons were defeated and the Gods came victorious with the help of Mahadev Siva. By a traditional account, it is supported by archaeological evidence. If we conclude that the 5th century A.D. was the period of conflict, we shall not be far from truth that the Buddhism was defeated by Saivaism. Hence there was revival of Hinduism in India in 5th century A.D. under the great Gupta Emperors of the north, and the same revival took place in the then Orissa.

We may also assign a number of rock-cut caves to the period when Ashokan Pillar was destroyed. Till now very little attention was received by the scholars so far. In the vicinity of the temple of Bhaskareswar these caves are still to be found, mostly to the west only. On the edges of an immense lateritic quarry, they have been excavated. To the south east of the place, gateways of Sisupal Garh stand upright. Pancha Pandab Gumpha is the most remarkable group of caves which are still in a tolerably good condition. Consisting of three spacious chambers with spacious verandahs, with the Bhaskareswar temple, the proximity of gumphas clearly indicates that they were intended for the abodes of the Saiva ascetics.

To practise penance, the Saiva ascetics lived in caves. From the archaeological remains at Dengaposi in the Keonjhar district, this is also an evidence. The Saiva ascetics were attracted towards the natural rock shelters in the hills in two neighboring villages by name Dengaposi and Sitabhingi. In the fifth- 6th century A.D. it is proved by a line of writing in the tempore paintings of this place that these shelters were the abodes of the ascetics practically assigned to this period which represent a royal procession. It is also evident from the rock inscriptions, that the Saiva ascetics lived with their disciples in these caves. The ascetics worshipped to a famous Mukhelingam which is still found to be there.

That the Gupta period in the then Orissa was marked by Saiva ascendancy finds much evidence in the archaeological remains of Dengaposi and Sitabhingi certifying the caves near the Bhaskareswar temple which furnish us the ample proofs to a considerable extent. It may be pressurized that its triumphant process may be continued in this century also as in the past though the future of Saivism in Orissa in 6th century A.D. cannot be traced.

As is evident from the Ganjam plate of Madhava Raj-II of 619 A.D. seems to have given definite turn to the ascendancy of Saivism in the then Orissa in the first part of the seventh century A.D. when SASANKA, the king of GOUDA, was the overlord of Kongada.

He was a follower of Saivism had been indicated by his coins circulated and he was represented as an enemy of Buddhism by whom a number of Buddhist monument had been demolished completely. In the revival of Hinduism, it seems he played a great part in stamping out Buddhism. Connected with Saiva Shrine of BHUBANESWAR is the four scared books a persistent tradition had been recovered which state that SASANKA built a Saiva temple in the Shrine of Tribhubaneswar who ruled up to Kalinga. However, the temple built by Sasanka could not be identified. We cannot confirm the literary evidences of the sacred texts, since his activities at Bhubaneswar are not attested to by more authentic evidences. With the progress of Saivism at BHUBANESWAR and Orissa historians raise strong presumptions that Sasanka had something to do for this.

SASANKA is not a mere traditional figure like Indradyumn and Indrabhuti. Known from his inscriptions, coins, he was a historical king who had been supported by Yhan Chuang’s account and Harsha_Charita of BANA. By unquestioned epigraphical records, his overlordship over the then Kalinga has been proved. This evidence cannot be lightly brushed aside when the scared texts credit him with the building of temple at BHUBANESWAR.

EKAMRA puran defines SASANKA on the tradition as follows.

“With his mind fixed on none (except on me), My devotee Sasanka the lord of the earth, will rule a portion of the earth extending up to Kalinga.”

With the king SASANKA of Gauda, there-fore we have identified with the SASANKA of the tradition.

It is the Pasupata sect of Saivism that had a period of ascendancy in the then Orissa, during the period of Bhauma rule which started from 736 A.D. The first Pasupata teacher “LAKULI” was born in the first century A.D. as KAYA rohana which is the modern KARVAN in the defunct state of Baroda. He was considered to be the last incarnation of the God Siva. Out of his four disciples at Mathura Kusika established himself where as Garga at Somanath in Kathiawad. On the early group of temples at Bhubaneswar the frequent occurrence of the Lakuli images has a great significance on their origin.

Such monuments were associated Pasupatism had been indicated on the early group of temples having Lakuliimages. That they are connected with Pasupata sect is known from their names of some temples of Bhubaneswar. Parsurameswar temple proves that its original name is Parsurameswar from an inscription on the Jagamohan of the temple.

One of the sacred texts Kapilsamhita and the name of the temple Kapileswar are associated with the name Kapil who was one of the Pasupatateachers. Temples like Nakuleswar and Mitreswar are also connected with names of Pasupatateachers. The famous Pasupata teachers were Nakuleswar, Kapil, Parasara amd Mitra.

A custom which was observed by the followers of Pasupata sect had been followed by the oldest Matha of Bhubaneswar. To set up a lingam to represent a dead teacher it was a practice with the sect to erect a temple for it. In the Bharati Matha of Bhubaneswar, the same practice is still being followed. A Gurvayatana has spring up within its compound as a result of this practice.

As many as fifteen miniature temples of sand stone and literite are now there in the compound, each of which contains a lingam. In the open space and the niche, a number of lingams are to be found also.

Many more temples still be buried in the kitchen garden if credence is given to the statement of the Mahunta of the Matha. It can reasonably be concluded that the origin of the Matha goes to the time of the earliest standing temples, since each of the lingam represents a generation of teachers. In the seventh chapter of the Ekambra Purana this tradition gains ground from a tradition already mentioned. That Yama, gave a splendid matha to a Pasupatacharya who lived in the close vicinity of the temple, who was the builder of the temple. To represent their dead teachers it was a practice with the Pasupatas to set up lingams. For setting up innumerable Siva lingam in Bhubaneswar these practice seems to have led in the minds of the people. For increasing the number of temples in Bhubaneswar, Pasupatism is responsible as described in Ekambra Purana.

In the early shrines of Bhubaneswar, the influence of the Pasupata sect can thus be traced. But for the origin of this dead, it is difficult to know from where it has come. A branch at Mathura connected with two early shrines at BHUBANESWAR is found in the names of the successors of Kusika, a disciple of Lakuli. It appears from a study of the existing temples at BHUBANESWAR that Pasupatism, Tantrism, Saktism and Saivism all became inseparably mixed up. A strange amalgam is formed in the early medieval period of the then ODISHA due to this strange mix up. Such a strange thing came to pass in the field of religion in the early medieval period not only in ODISHA but also in the other parts of India also.

With Pasupatism it is true that Saktism became mixed up in the then ORISSA. In its scripture of vital temple a strange amalgamation of Saktism, Mahayana Buddhism and Saivism assigned to the Bhauma period has been mixed up with the touch of time.

This vaital temple bears such images like Lakulisa while the presiding deity is a Chamunda. There we find Bhairava, Virabhadra, Amoghasidhi, Gajantakari and the male deity with the head of a boar. Assigned to the Bhauma period, the adjacent Siva temple of Sisireswar, bears on it the Buddhist Tantrik images like Amoghasidhi, Aralokitiswar and Kuvera etc. particularly during the Bhauma period, a mixed form of religion has been followed by the then ORISSA. It appears that in the early medieval period, Saivism cannot be extricated and treated separately. Sakta shrines on the four sides of Vindusagar were established during this period only. They bear the influence of Saivism as much as Saktism. Siva was considered to be superior to Vishnu and other deities during this period, however, it appears.

A panel of sculptures appears on its southern façade in the Markendeswar temple situated on the western bank of Vindusagar, in which Brahma and Vishnu have been represented with folded hands, paying respect to the Lord Sivagi Maharaj. This evidence is enough to prove that it appears Siva was considered to be the Supreme deity of the Brahminied Pantheon.

The Bhanja rulers of Bhauma period built three small Siva temples of Baudha bear distinct Tantrik influence. In each case, the ground plan is Starlike. Most likely it was necessitated by the cult practised in them. Enshrined in them, the saktis of the lingams are also star like . That the temples and the deities were made in the forms of mandalas or mystic figures were indicated by the shapes. The Tantriks wished to attain their Sidhis with the help of these mystical figures.

During this period, Saiva temples at Jaipur have been built also bear Tantrik influence.

In the Mahabharat and Harivamsa, there is mention about the presiding deity of the place who is no other than viraja. Her antiquity is to be traced to a much earlier period.

During the Bhauma period connected with the Tantrik practices the rituals of the deity seems to have undergone a great change with all forms of religions in ODISHA. Tantra had become inextricably mixed up when somavansis started their rule about 931 A.D. in this contrary. As per Bhakti Bhagavata a Sanskrit work of Ganga Period, the earth was submerged into the ocean of Tantras during the Bhauma period.

As their Surnames Mahasivagupta and Mahabhabagupta indicate the Somavansis were the staunch Saivas. They style themselves as parama Maheswar as per their copper plate grants. But during the Bhauma period, the type of Saivism which they professed, was not the same as was prevalent in the then Orissa.

With its centre at Kandambaguha identified with Kadawaha in the former state of Gwalior, it seems to have been influenced by the Mattamayura sect of Saivism which was prevalent in the central India.

In the old Somavansi temple at Ranipur- Jharial in the Titilagarh subdivision of the Bolangir district, the name of Gangasiva known as Vyomasiva is known from the inscription which is the famous ascetic of this sect. At Ranipur-Jharial, it is apparent that Gangasiva had also a secondary establishment.

Before they came to the then Orissa, the Somavansis of Kosala were in the occupation of this territory and by the Mattamayura sect it was of rite likely that the type of Saivism professed by them was influenced to a great extent.

Clinging to a family deity of their own, the Somavansis were typical Hindus. They were worshipping all other deities by extending toleration and patronage to all other sects.

In the course of time, they revived the most important vaisnava shrine of Jagannath at Puri. In raising the great Saiva temple of Lord Lingaraj at Bhubaneswar, the kings of this dynasty were instrumental. Kolavati Devi, the mother of Udyat-Kesari, built the Brahmeswar temple at Bhubaneswar with the performance of Aswamedha sacrifices at Jajpur, it is they who are credited with which are being worshipped now on the bank of Baitarani at Jajpur to whom saptamatrukas are attributed to.

The beautiful monolithic pillar at Jajpur had been set up by one of the kings of this dynasty. This is now known as Subha-Stambha originally crowned with a Garuda figure. Retaining all the conventions that had acquired religious sanctum through long practices in the preceding centuries, they seem to have been cosmopolitan in their religious outlook.

During his reign Udyotkesari tolerated then creation of Jain monuments at Khandagiri which has already been seen. As were indulged in by the Tantrik Saivas such revolting practices do not seem to have been favored by them.

In their terrific forms the Sakta images continued to be sculptured on the temples, as is evidenced by a few such images appearing on the Brahmeswar temple. Assignable to this period the only sakta image that served as the presiding deity of the Gauri temple near Kedareswar, is found in the pacific form.

Except only one on Lingaraj temple, the images of Lakulisa do not appear at all on other temples built during Somavansi period which are to be found in large numbers in Mukteswar temple.

A mixed form of Saivism and Saktism prevailed in Orissa in the Bhauma period as we have already seen but they have been restored by the Somavansis to their purer forms.

Originally Gangas were Saivas, but they became more inclined towords vaisnavism after their conquest of. Orissa as represented by Jagannath cult than towards Saivism. Saivism continued to be a major sect during their period of rule. Ganga kings and their relatives built temples by donating lands for their maintenance and they continued to show reverence to Siva.

Soon after his conquest of Orissa Chodaganga Deva donated a perpetual Lamp in theshrine of Lord Lingaraj at Bhubaneswar and for its maintenance granted sufficient lands with villages. In A.D. 1142 a similar perpetual lamp had been donated by Pramadideva at the shrine of the Kedareswar at Bhubaneswar with similar land grants.

Megheswar temple at Bhubaneswar had been built by Svapneswardeva who was the c-in-c of Ganga kings. On the Saiva temple at Jajpur, Bhubaneswar, Mukhalingam, Drakasarama and Bhubaneswar, numerous Ganga inscriptions appear in bold letters proving conclusively that they retained their veneration for lord Siva though they later became included towards Vaisnavism.

Two innovations seem to have been introduced into the Saiva shrines of Orissa during their rule. The first one was the Nata-mandir – a specious hall and the second one was the provision of perpetual lamp in the important shrines.

They retained all other conventions barring these two innovations of the Somavansis.

Suryavansi period culturally merged into Ganga period as they followed the Pattern of Saivism established by the Gangas only.

Lord Lokanath at Bilaspur, Lord Amareswar at Barida Jagannathpur Sasan, Lord Tumbeswar at Pratapur are the famous Siva temples including Gupteswar in the then Jaugada which was identified as SAMAPA , the southern capital of TOSHALI.

There are many other Siva temples spread through out the state of ODISHA which are also very very famous.

Tuesday, December 13, 2011


(Copy right protected by Dr. G.S. Tripathy)

In different names, Puri is referred to where CHAURDHA MURTIS are being worshipped. Those names are given below.

1. NILACHAL, 2. Sankha Kshetra, 3. Jagannath Dham, 4. Srikhetra, 5. Purushottam Kshetra, 6. Yamanik TIRTH, 7. Uddiyan Pith, 8. Martya Baikuntha, 9. Uchchist Kshetra, 10. Bhauma Kshetra, 11. KUSASTHALI etc. etc.

In India which is Bharata, there are four Dhams in four directions. Sri Jagannath is worshipped as NARAYANA in Badrinath Dham in the north, in the south as Ramchandra, or Ramanath Dham in the west as Dwarakanath or Srikrishna and in the east – as SriJagannath in Jagannath Dham.

In Puri Jagannath Dham is the most sacred of all. Here in Puri, the supreme almighty takes. His daily bath puts on his dress and makeup and after taking His food sleeps as a human being as it is said. But in other Dhams, the God only sleeps & responds when Bhakta calls as it is common in Sri Jagannath.

There in the Jagannath Dham all Bhogs or Prasads are known as Mahaprasad only and in Kali Yuga, He is worshipped as Daru Brahma. Daru means wood and Brahma means universal life force. DARU Brahma may be Brahma Daru.

A with cultural and religious heritage it is the glory of ODISHA. In the abundance of historical monuments and sculptures which are scattered throughout the state can be seen. An ethereal beauty which is seemed to none, can be proved from the architectural perfection of the temples, vied with the matchless grace of the sculptures. On the rich architectural beauty and rare works of art found there in ODISHA has been rightly said to be a Tourist’s Paradise where one can feast one’s eyes in abundance.

Specially at Puri the antiquity and origin of Jagannath worship is still shrouded in mystery. There are several traditions found in different books followed by legends and gain-sruties etc. in connection with the antiquity and the origin of Jagannath worship.

To trace the origin attempts have been made by scholars who have tried to justify their arguments which have no end at all.

Some tried to embrace Buddhism by dragging Goutam Buddha to the ninth Avatar of Jagannath which is basically wrong as Goutam was the son of a zamindar by name Sudhodan of Kapil vastu in the then Kalinga. This writer has mentioned this in his historical kabya “SAKYA-Sraman” clearly and candidly.

Here an attempt has been made to give a picture of the Daru-Brahma being worshipped in different places of ODISHA in a nut-shell. Places of worship of Lord Jagannath in entirety in ODISHA shall be provided later in a different connection.

Sri Sri Jagannath is being worshipped in different names in different places of ODISHA as follows. Which do not cover the entire state of ODISHA.

1. Sri CHAKA THAKUR is MARADA, POLSARA, CHIKITI, KHALLIKOTE in the district of Ganjam.

5. Sri DADHIBAMAN SWAMI at BUGUDA – (GANJAM) and at Kukudakhandi in Ganjam

8. Sri PATHA JAGANNATH at Chhatrapur – (GANJAM)

12. Sri LAXMI NRUSIMHA at Hinjilicut – (GANJAM)
13. Sri Jagannath Swami at Attagarh – (GANJAM

14. Sri Biranchi Narayan at Buguda – (GANJAM)

15. TIRIDA JAGANNATHY at TIRIDA in the distinct of Ganjam.
JAGATSIMHA PUR, In Different Districts
KENDRA PADA TOWN, In Different Districts
19. Sri Kalki Jagannath at NALAPATNA –(BALASORE)
20. Sri Banthia JAGANNATH at Moti Ganja
21. Sri Hari BALADEV JEW at Baripada,
Amarda, -- (Mayurbhanj)
22. BRAHMAPURA Sri Jagannath at JHADUAPADA – (Sambalpur)
23. Mahimamani Sri Jagannath at RAGADI
BANKI / Cuttack
24. Sri Jagannath Swami at ANCHAL GUDA
25. Sri Jagannath Swami at NABARANG PUR
26. Sri Jagannath Swami at GOVINDA PALLI
27. Sri Jagannath Swami at MALAKAN GIRI
28. Sri Jagannath Swami at PURUNA GADA
29. Sri Jagannath Swami at DEVAGADA TOWN
30. Sri Jagannath Swami at DEVAGADA
31. Sri Jagannath Swami at TEKALI
32. Sri HARI Jagannath at BOUDH TOWN (BOUDH)
33. Sri ATALA BALADEV Jew at Sankarpur
34. Sri Anant BALADEV at GUDA
JHADA POKHARIA Thana (Mayurbhanj)
41. Sri Kunja Bihari at KUJANG
43. Sri BALARAM at CHAU PADA / Patta Sundar Pur - Cuttack


46. Sri SIDHA BALARAM at Satya VADI Puri

49. Sri Patita PAVAN at RAJ KHADIALA
DOLA MUNDEI (Cuttack City)
& Jagat Sing Pur
51. Sri Jagna BARAHA at NANDA PADA Sambalpur
55. Sri Gopal Jew at REMEDA (P.O.) Khetarajpur in Sambalpur Dist
& at BOLANGIRA TOWN in Bolangiri Dist.
56. Sri Radha Madan Gopal at SAKHIPADA in Sambalpur Dist.
58. Sri PURUSHOTTAM at BIDANASHI in Cuttack City
PURUSHOTTAM DEV at TIGIRIA in Cuttack District
60. Sri TRIMURTI Jagannath at Gopinath Pur Sasan in Cuttack District
61. Sri Rouka-nath at BANAPUR,
and Khadiala, Nua Pada TRIKUTA BAHADA (foot of the hill)
Suvarn Pur
North Jajpur
63. DADHI BAMAN DEV at Chainipur (Puri)
64. Anant Basudev at Bhubaneswar infront of BinduSagar
65. Sri Bhagabat Basudev at PAIKARAPUR KHURDHA
66. Sri Ananteswar at Bhubaneswar
67. Sri Prasanna Dev at Basudevpur
68. Sri Siddha Jagannath at Madhuban (3 K.M. from Kendujhar)
69. Sri Charan Chaka Dev at Badahantu AADA Khurda
70. Sri Hari at Srihari Mandir, (Podapada) Boud
71. Sri Hari Hara at Ahivabandha
Rourkela (Sundargarh)
72. Sri Antargami at Prachi upatyaka
73. Sri Brundavan at Shankarpur Bhadrakh
74. Sri Rangadhar at Jirangara Gajapati
(Foot of Mahendragiri).

Saturday, November 12, 2011


(Copy right protected by Dr. G.S. Tripathy)

It cannot be exactly determined the date of origin of the ODIA BHASHA and its subsequent development. The spread of Prachya Prakrita might have taken the same course in ODISHA, known as Kalinga in ancient times in the history of India. The conquest of Kalinga by Ashok in 261BC is an important and well-known event. Before the epoch making event it is very difficult to ascertain the form of languages prevalent in the land of Bharat.

Long long ago when first Manu came to this earth from the other planet where he was living due to an OUGHA with his nearest relatives; he tried to teach his mother tongue Sanskrit to the then people here on this earth when there was no India, no Pakistan and no specific countries as they are today. With his Space-ship first Manu landed at Sapta-sindhu as per the indication given in Vedas. At that time Sapta Sindhu was surrounded by seven prominent rivers and three seas like Parabata, Saraswata and Arbabat.

“OUGHA” means flood-either due to water or snow is not specifically mentioned in Vedas. Harappa and Mahenjodaro civilization, which we call, is the sole gift of the then Arayas who came from the same planet to this earth along with, Manu with their technology, which cannot be imagined by the so called modern scientists of date.

The scholars who say that the Arayas have come from middle Africa, Egypt, Europe etc to Saptasindhu, are totally wrong. After staying in Sapta Sindhu, gradually these Arayas have gone to European countries and to other places like Irak, Iran, Pakistan etc, to eke out their livelihood.

Aryan influence predominated gradually spreading from Sapta Sindhu civilization towards the east of present India.

After the extinction of the Magadhan dominance, a branch of Chedi dynasty ruled over the Kalinga Empire. The Emperor Kharavela was the third member of this dynasty who was a scion of northern origin. When and how this northern Chedi dynasty established itself in Kalings is not known. But it is an admitted fact that they belonged to Aryan origin without any doubt. Kharvel has been styled as “AIRA” or “Aryan” in the Hathigumpha inscription. This word “AIRA” has been taken to be a corruption of the word ARYA or Aryan. In this epigraph the titles given to him are purely of Sanskrit origin. The Hathigumpha Prasasti has been composed in the Sanskrit origin only. The names of his relatives found in this epigraph are of Sanskrit origin. With a sacred language of Sanskrit Janism was also of Sanskrit origin from the north of India professed by emperor Kharvela.

From the short inscriptions on the Udaygiri Caves, names of his father-in-law and some of his officers found prominently which are of Sanskrit origin. With a sacred language of Sanskrit Origin, Janism was a religion of northern India.

By some scholars the names of some of his probable successors, VADUKA Kudupsiri are taken as of Dravidian origin though it has not been accepted by all.

As of Sanskrit origin, the name of Kharavel too has been interpreted meaning the ocean.

Some of the facts have been analysed above is to show that the Chedies of the Kalinga were of the northern origin and they Patronized and spoke a language of Sanskrit origin.

Assigned to the third century A.D., the Bhadrakha inscription of GANA is Prakrit. But there are certain words in this inscription which do not follow the Prakrit grammar and language. In this epigraph a word “MEDHA” is used. This seems to be a word of local language then Prevailing in then Kalings.

Upto the beginning of the Gupta Period, Prakrit was the language in all documents in then ODISHA.

This continues, it seems, up to 4th Century A.D. But all the epigraphs of the later Gupta period found in ODISHA, was in Sanskrit. Sanskrit was prevalent during the time of all the ruling dynasties of ODISHA like the vigrahas and the Matharas who have used Sanskrit in their charters. In their copper plates all the later dynasties like the Shilodbhavas, Bhaumas and Somavanisis used the language Sanskrit only. From the fourth fifth century A.D. onwards a change in the official language from Prakrit to Sanskrit seems to have taken place.

Whether the direct administration of the imperial Guptas was ever introduced in the ODISHA for which scholars are still uncertain.

In the field of culture and religion during their rule, ODISHA felt the influence of the mighty change that took place in northern India and there is no doubt about it.

During the Gupta period there was revival of Hinduism and of Sanskrit which had its repercussion on ODISHA too. The local language must have been influenced and became Sanskritic in their origin and vocabulary.

During the rule of Matharas, Panchatantra was composed, who were the contemporaries of the Guptas, in ODISHA. All the languages of this country must have been influenced by this great work of Panchatantra.

There are some places in India till-today where people are very much interested to speak Sanskrit and learn through Sanskrit only. Their mother tongue is Sanskrit only. The places are MATUR and HOSALI of KARNATAK, ‘Jhari’ “MOHADA”, “BAGHUAAR” of MADHYA PRADESH, GANODA village of BAUSAWADA district in Rajsthan.

In the SIMOGA district of Karnataka there is a village by name MATUR, as aforesaid, where only two thousand people are living. 95% (percent) of the people of this village are speaking Sanskrit only. When an outsider comes to that village, at once he hears – “BHABATAH NAMA KIM”

In place of “hallo” they speak “Hari Om”

All most everyone of that village, irrespective of Children up to grownups – they speak only Sanskrit. They fully understand the Indian traditional values including Muslims also whose children too speak Sanskrit.

They are not lagging behind in any respect some people of that village are serving as professors and teachers in different universities of India and abroad. Some Engineers are also there in that village.

Many outsider students are also coming to that village to learn Sanskrit. History of Matur is very old. About 500 years back people established there in that village since the reign of Krishna Dev Roy the famous king of the then VIJAYA NAGAR.

“JHARI” in Rajagarh district of Madhya Pradesh contains a population of only one thousand. They speak flaw-less and beautiful Sanskrit even when they work in the field. Even the Bullocks in the field do not find any difficulty to understand the order of the cultivator in Sanskrit.

In BAGHUWAR and MOHAD also people do utilize Sanskrit language only since morning to evening in their social duties. They do not understand whether it is useful to know Sanskrit at all for their future upliftment in the society or in the country.

Many foreign scholars are of opinion that Sanskrit is by far the better than almost all the richest languages of the world.

But in ODISHA Sanskrit was never the spoken language. But from the rock edicts available during the period of Kharvela and after the victory of Kalings by Chandrasoka, it appears, there must be pali and Prakrit as spoken language in Orissa as the rock edicts here in ODISHA contain Prakrit mixed with pali in many cases.

But to evolve a language of its own, ODISHA must have taken centuries which became Sanskritic in origin. In any document so far discovered, no example of earliest form of the ODIA Bhasha has come down to us. Certain words have been found in the ODIA inscription here and there which are of Sanskritic origin. We find the word like Thira, Pruva, Tambra, Paduma etc in the Bhauma copper plate records which can be pronounced in Sanskrit as Sthira, Purva, TAMBRA and Padma respectively. The influence of local language is discernible clearly in the names like Nannta, Bhimata, Lona, Bhara and Unmata simha etc.

It must have existed in a formative stage during the period of the Sailoddhavas, the Bhaums and the Somavamasis if at all it existed.

From the language of the central India people of Odra Country spoke a different language according to Yuan’ Chwang. Family affinities with the language of the then ODISHA especially at the time of Yuam Chwang had with the language then available in the northern and central India. They differed in the past as they do at present even though all the Northern Eastern and central India belong to one family group. Ganjam and Puri district together known as Kongada. Being adjacent to Andhra Pradesh Kongada has been influenced by the Andhra Pradesh only.

It is true Yuan Chwang did not learn the languages of India. Also he did not carry out any research work on them. He formed an impression about the language of these places during his sojourn in kongada and Odra Countries. Hence too much importance should not be given on his reports.

By ninth-tenth century A.D. the present ODISHA was consisted with three cultural and political units known as Koshal, Utkal and Kongada under the Soma Vamasis.

About 931 A.D. Jajati. I occupied the then ODISHA. As a result by the people and by the ministers of the state, Jajati-II was requested to be the king of these afore said, three distinct territories. To the coastal region of ODISHA the capital of Somavamsi Kingdom was shifted from Koshal especially during the period of Jajati II. The growth of a common language in the then ODISHA was fostered due to these political changes.

The people of Koshal at that point of time spoke a language akin to Bhojpuri and Prakrit while Magadhi had the affinity with the language of the coastal strip. A new language came to be formed as Oriya which came into existence with the mixture of two branches of Prachya Prakrit along with Magadhi. From the fact that the elements of the language of the coastal strip, the land of the odras predominated in it, the nomenclature seems to be have been derived. That the Koshal tract at no time could produce literature of its own is another reason seems to be.

But no specimen of ODIA Language of the Soma Vamasi period has come down to us as the oriya language seems to have been born under these circumstances.

We got from the stone and copper plate inscriptions a number of specimens of the ODIA language provided to us by the Ganga Period. From a bilingual inscription (ODIA and Tamil) of the reign of Vira Narasimhadev discovered at Bhubaneswar these Spcimens are found. During the Ganga Period with indubitable evidences the ODIA Language had considerably developed. Dr. K.B.Tripathy in his book “the evolution of oriya Language and script” has published the text of many inscriptions except the Sonepur stone inscription of Bhanudev I.

These records as described by Sri Tripathy show the examples of a stereotyped language generally used in documents only. That there was a literary language in Orissa they do not produce any evidence on this score.

During the Ganga period, some ODIA scholars think that the oriya literature had made its appearance. By the MadalaPanji, they take their stand. From the reign of Chodagangadev they maintain that this chronicle had started to be written. To the first part of the twelfth century A.D., they thus trace back the origin of the oriya literature through the unreliable character of MadalaPanji known to the historians.

In his Artavallabha Mohanty Memorial Lectures 1964, Prof S.K. Chatterjee seems to have been led by the popular view. He has assigned therefore the beginning of MadalaPanji to the reign of Chodagangadev only.

The long proclamation purported to have been issued by the Ganga King Anangabhima devIII, which has been incorporated in the MadalaPanji, has been taken as a very good specimen of oriya prose by him. In this so called Proclamation, he has not noticed several anachronisms which have proved that it could not have been composed in the Ganga period only. They were being handed down orally from generation to generation not only during the Ganga period but even much earlier folk songs existed in the then Orissa.

This gives us some indication about the early form of oriya language and literature when studied deeply about these songs.

The date of the origins of Khanna - Vachana cannot be determined which is the earliest literature of Orissa.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Vaisnavism in ODISHA

(Copy right protected by Dr. G.S. Tripathy)

Cult of Vaisnavism and its origin goes back to the pre-rigevdic period when Vishnu was conceived as a member of the solar family. From very early times Vaisnavism might have existed in the then ODISHA. This can be connected with the archeological monuments relating to the early medieval period. Holding Sankha, Chakra, gada and Padma Vishnu makes his appearance as a ­subsiding deity on the Temples of Odisha belonging to 6th- 7th- 8th century of Bhubaneswar and other places. An image of Vishnu with distinctive attributes had been enshrined originally in the central niche of the southern facade in the Swarnnajalesure temple at Bhubaneswar assigned to seventh century A.D. was removed to the Orissa State Museum by Prof K.C. Panigrahi. On the outer walls of this Temple, certain scenes from the life of Sri Ramchandra have been depicted out of which some scenes are clearly identifiable and discernible. Especially the scenes of Ramchandra cutting down Sapta-salas, killing of Vali, and of Veer Hanuman preparing for Flying to Lankapur or quite prominent. That the Ramayana story was fully known to the builders of this temple, has been proved beyond doubt with these panels of sculptures providing panoramic views of the life of Sri Ramchandra.

An assembly of all the main deities of the Brahmanical Pantheon has been found in which vision is quity prominent with the scenes of marriage of Siva appeared on the Bharateswar, Parsurameswar and the Swarnagaleswar temples in Bhubaneswar. Vaisnavi makes her appearance with the distinctive attribute GARUDA on the Pedestals in the group of Saptamatrukas to be found in the Parsurameswar, vaital and Mukteswar temples in Bhubaneswar. Into the sculptures of the early medieval Period, Vishnu and his female Counterpart have thus been introduced in a very nice way. Vishnu images as the presiding deities of temple shrines are not tracable in the Coastal belt of ODISHA.

At Gandharadi about fifteen kilo meters from Boudha One solitary Vishnu temple is still in existence in the hilly region to the surprise of many visitors. On the northern façade of the vaital temple an image of Harihara is to be seen in which a combined figures of Siva and Vishnu are clearly prominent. As a part of Siva, Vishnu appears here but as an independent deity. On the southern facade of Markandeswar temple a panel of sculptures appears where Brahma and Vishnu are paying homage to Siva with folded hands. It has been thus established the superiority of Lord Siva over Vishnu in many temples in the minds of Siva Bhaktas.

On the temples of Bhubaneswar Child Krishna makes his appearance. In the ODISHA state Museum, an architectural fragment containing a Panel of sculpturs showing the scene of KALIYA DALAN has been preserved, Bhubaneswar was its Provenance. Its stylistic development indicates to a temple which is not later than the seventh Century A.D. On the southern façade of the Vimana of the lord Lingraj temple these is an appearance of the figures of Nanda Yasoda, and the child srikrishna which attracts the attention of many. Almost in the same form at the north east corner of Brahmeswar temple it is found on its Western façade. Nanda is a bearded figure in both the panels’ fitting opposite Yasoda. Where Yasoda is engaged in Churning Curds. It is shown that child Srikrishna is sitting by the side of the Curd vessel.

The presiding deity is an attractive and beautiful visnu image with all his attributes at Jalauka near Chhatia in the district of Cuttack in a temple with four subsidiary ones in four corners of the compound. It is still in existence in a tolerably good condition. It is a contemporary of Mukteswar temple at Bhubaneswar built during somavanpi period. In all likelihood in the same period, a Subhastambha had been built at Jajpur which is a beautiful monolithic Pillar but due to vandalism the pillar had been pulled down. The Subhastambha is certainly a Vaisnavita monument.

Towards the close of the twelfth century, Swapneswardev, the Commander -in-chief of the Ganga dynasty built Megheswar temple which contains on its southern façade a small panel of sculpture depicting godhan-haran. Srikrishna is seated on a couch or stool with some female figures in the scene. Those figures must be Gopis on his sides with a herd of cows on the pedestals. On the right side of the top corner, this is a little bearded figure to be found is witnessing the whole scene should be identified with Brahma only.

On the bank of Vindusagar, Anant-Vasudev temple is situated. This is a vaisnavite shrive which had originally a commemorative inscription which is now preserved in the hall of the Royal Asiatic society of Great Britain in,London.In the epigraph it is stated that the temple was built for Srikrishna and BALARAMA .On the bank of Vindusagar by Chandrika Devi who was the daughter of Ananga bhim Dev(III) in the Saka Year 1200, Corresponding to 1278 A.D. Paramardi Dev, the ornament of Haihaya family married Chandrika Devi who built the Anant-Basudev temple in memorium to her husband who died in a battle fighting against Muslims in Bengal.

Bhaum queen Tribhuvan Mahadevi. I was a great devotee of visnu.She created some Vaisnava shrines but no temple of Vishnu had been built by her.

On the Balustrades of the window on the northern side of the Anant-Vasudev temple, the figures of Ram-Laxman-Sita and Hanuman appear which proves clearly that Ram was considered to be an incarnation of Vishnu as they are found place in a temple meant for Anant- Basudev. Near the balustraded window in the north, a few other cult images like Laxmi and Saraswati appear on the Jagmohana of the Anant-Basudev temple and no doubt that they are the members of the family of Vishnu. On the southern and northern niches of this temple, there are free-standing images of the Boar and Dwarf incarnation which are also enshrined respectively. On the balustrades of the window consisting of Srikrishna & Gopis to the southern side of the temple there were five images out of which three balustrades have become detached and placed in a nearby small temple by the side of vindusagar.

The ten incarnations of Vishnu are well known to the people of ODISHA clearly shows from the sculptures of the Anant-Vasudev temple built in 1278 A.D. All the incarnations are identical with Vishnu representing his different forms including the last two incarnations by name Buddha & Kalki. It should be pointed out in this connection, that the 9th incarnation of Vishnu related to Goutam Buddha by many is absolutely wrong as Goutam Buddha was the son of a Zamindar at Kapilvastu in the then Kalinga and he was a refarmering. With the influence of Geet-Govind by Jaydev, these ten incarnations have been taken as granted by many but it is not correct at all. However people of Orissa were familiar with this incarnation. Nrisimha appears to have received the special attention of the kings and people of ODISHA out of all these incarnation. In the compound of Lingaraj temple a temple of Laxmi- Nrisimha is to be found and from the days of Gangas Nrishimnath temple at Simhachalan has developed into a great shrine.

In the twelfth Century, Gitagovind had been composed by Jaydev. This appears to have been responsible for popularizing the ten incarnations including that of Buddha, where Buddha cannot be taken as an incarnation. In the fifteenth century Sarala Das composed Mahabharata where there are references to necklaces with the incarnations of Vishnu and that their special attributes were well known even to the artisans of ODISHA.

During the Ganga period, Narahari Tirtha and Jaydev appear to have made Vaisnavism more popular in the then ODISHA. A disciple of Anant tirth, Narahari Tirtha lived in ODISHA for long twelve years and exercised a great influence on the Ganga royal family who was the founder of the DVAIT philosophy. He worked as governor for some years and acted as regent to the boy king Narasimha II. Narahari placed the boy king when he came up age and then went to his guru with the images of Rama, Sita. This was his original mission assigned to him by Madhab Tirtha. For the spread of Vaisnavism of his own sect in the then Orissa & Kalings, numerous inscriptions of Simhachalan and Srikurumanatha have been testified. Due to his influence, perhaps, the later Ganga kings alternately bore the names of Narashimha and Bhanu where Bhanu being considered an aspect of Vishnu. Ultimately the sun cult merged into Vaisnav cult in Orissa. As an aspect of Vishnu, the sun was conceived and was called Viranchi Narayan later on. The only two known examples of saura monuments are the temples of Konark and the beautiful temple of PALIA in the Balasore district. In Dhenkanal district two colossal images of images of PADMANABHA or sessayi Vishnu are to be found near Talcher.

On the stony bed of the river Brahmani at Sarang a colossal image of PADMANABHA measuring thirty two feet in height is also to be found which has special attributes of Vishnu in this form. Another colossal image of Padmanabha measuring fifty one feet and a half in length is to be found at Bhimkand, 18 miles from Talcher. To the eighth and ninth century A.D. these images can be assigned.

From this various places of ODISHA, stray images of vision assignable to the later going period and the Suryavansi period have been discovered. Huge images of Krishna-Vasudev have been discovered in the Prachi valley of the Puri district. But with the special attributes of flute and peacock feather of Krishna images are rarely found. Probably belonging to the transitory period of the 14th & 15th century A.D. One such image is now preserved in Orissa State Museum. With four hands, two of which hold a flute, the deity stands cross-legged. This is an indication, that Krishna-Vasudev of the earlier conception was being merged into Krishna the flute- holder who became famous for his alliance with the Gopis.

Specially by Jaydev, the cult of Krishna Gopi vallaba was made in popular the then ODISHA. As described in the Geet-govinda, the form of Vishnu with Radha as his consort represents the conception of Vishnu of the later Sahajiya sect. The religious philosophy expounded in Geet- govinda had not been accepted by the earlier Poets of the then ODISHA even though it might have been popular. In the sixteenth century Oriya Bhagabat had been composed by Jaganath Das. It does not refer to Radha at all. Oriya Bhagabata is not an exact translation of Sanskrit Bhagabata Mahapurana. At a number of points, the poet has deviated from the original. Radha could have been introduced easily by him but he has not done at all. In their works the other members of Panchasakhas have also avoided Radha scrupulously. Sarala Das also has ridiculed the tenants of Sahajiya sect as propounded by Gitagovinda.

To all sects, Sarala Das has shown respects in his writing but there is one exception to this general pattern of his religious behaviour. SAHAJIYAS have been the targets of Sarala Dasa’s satires. In the fifth can to Geet-govinda there is an episode in which a husband & a wife were out at night to meet their Paramours. In intense darkener they lost their ways and met each other. They soon became engaged in copulation without knowing each other. Through the letterance aver of Soft words at the time of engagement, they could recognize each other eventually. In his Adi Parva, Sarla Das has utilized this episode satirically in his own way On Srikrishna.

A pattern of vaisnavism found in the Gita-govinda was different from the one that followed by ODISHA Poets till the sixteenth century A.D. From the time of the long- sojourn of Sri-chaitanya at Puri till his death in 1533A.D, a change in the conception of Krishna cult however took place in ODISHA. This great saint never followed nor favoured the type of love between Srikrishna and SriRadhe as described in Geet-govind. The love between SriKrishna and SriRadha is to be emotionalized and idealized according to him which had no relation with carnal desire. Within the meaning that he had given into it his followers in the then ODISHA and elsewhere did not keep in love as Preached by his Writing on Krishna Charita, all the later Vaisnava ODIA poets followed more Jayadev than Srichaitanaya in dealing with the love between Srikrishna & SriRadha. With a full description of sexual intercourse almost all of them ended their works as it is to be found in Gitagovinda. DeenKrishna, Abimanyha, Bhakta Charan, Baladev, and Gopal Krishna have all followed the model of love in their works between SriRadhe& Srikrishna as it is described in Gitagovinda. But they had one deviation in their works. They have not represented Radha as a Khandita woman forsaken by her lover like Jaydev.

In 1568, the then ODISHA was Occupied by Afgans and it became benighted country thereafter. The ODIA vaisnava Poets were very much influenced by the petty chiefs who use their Patrons in the dark age that followed in the then ODISHA. Their Patrons favoured the type of love depicted in the Gitagovinda. During this period, a class of ODIA literature known as VOLIS originated. On the people at large, it must have exercised a great demoralizing influence. For controlling their sexual relation between man and woman, the volis dealt with love between Srikrishna & Sriradha in a form that transgressed all the limits prescribed by the human society. SriKrishna is described enjoying sexual pleasure in various guises, such as garland maker, the dealer of ornaments, the boat-man, the dealer of brass utensils even as a tiger or a mouse in their works of these poets. In all conceivable forms in fact, Srikrishna was described as a voluptuously lewd person whose only business was to enjoy sexual pleasure. But it is totally & basically wrong because these poets were influenced by the Gitagovinda only.

ODISHA produced a vaisnava literature so rich, so varied & so great in poetic attainments and so great in number that its parallel can hardly be found in any other contemporary literature of this lenivense specially in the sixteenth century A.D. But this unparalleled literature was vitiated by a debased form of religions philosophy forming its theme.

At a very late stage of her history, it is to be noted that SriRadhe as a deity or consort of SriKrishna was introduced into the Indian literature specially in ODISHAN religion and culture. In the vast Indian Sanskrit literature except in a single verse of the saptasati of HALA of uncertain date Radhe does not appear at all. In which state of India the character Radhe was created at first that is also not known.

Before the time of Jaydev, it is stated, in the history of Bengal, Probably Radha was a Bengali innovation. We do not know how for it is true. On the other hand, Sri P. Acharya of ODISHA maintains in his article entitled “RADHA-KRISHNA MURTI PUJARA ITIHASA” in his (“ODISARA PRATNA TATTVA O ANYANYA PRAVANDHA, 1969-PP411) that Radhe Originated in ODISHA.

Before the sixteenth century A.D. the Image of RADHA was not associated with the image of Gopal or Srikrishna to be found in ODISHA –is a fact, be if as it may. Originally the image of Radha was not associated that with the shrines of KHIRACHORA Gopinath at Remuna in the Balesore district or Sakhigopal in Puri district. There are also other shrines of Gopinath or Gopal at Balianta. Sarakare and Hirapur in Puri district besides these two famous shrines. No Radha image was originally associated in them. Near Jajpur we find Gopinath images of Gopinath Pur and of Malatira near Agarpada in the Balasore district had similarly no Radha image at all by their sides. Sri P. Acharya had mentioned in his article that a Radhe image had been taken to Brindaram from ORISSA to be associated with SriKrishna.

We known very well Sri Narahari TIRTHA took the images of Rama & Sita from the then Orissa and presented them to his teacher Madhave Tirtha.

But it does not indicate that the cults of these images originated & in the then ODISHA with the transportation of these images of Rama Sita & Radhe to the other regions of India from Orissa. That ODISHA had the best sculptors who produced most beautiful cult images only it indicates.

From the sixteenth century onwards the entry of Radhe into ODISHA religion and culture througly changed their original Character and gave a different turn to her history.

Sri Chaitanya demoralized ODISHA and the ODIAS also is acceptable with the fall of Pratap Rudra Dev and his invincible army. This is the view of Prof. R.D. Banerjee.

The then Oriyas were influenced by Jaydev & by Sri Chaitanya also.