Tuesday, December 13, 2011


(Copy right protected by Dr. G.S. Tripathy)

In different names, Puri is referred to where CHAURDHA MURTIS are being worshipped. Those names are given below.

1. NILACHAL, 2. Sankha Kshetra, 3. Jagannath Dham, 4. Srikhetra, 5. Purushottam Kshetra, 6. Yamanik TIRTH, 7. Uddiyan Pith, 8. Martya Baikuntha, 9. Uchchist Kshetra, 10. Bhauma Kshetra, 11. KUSASTHALI etc. etc.

In India which is Bharata, there are four Dhams in four directions. Sri Jagannath is worshipped as NARAYANA in Badrinath Dham in the north, in the south as Ramchandra, or Ramanath Dham in the west as Dwarakanath or Srikrishna and in the east – as SriJagannath in Jagannath Dham.

In Puri Jagannath Dham is the most sacred of all. Here in Puri, the supreme almighty takes. His daily bath puts on his dress and makeup and after taking His food sleeps as a human being as it is said. But in other Dhams, the God only sleeps & responds when Bhakta calls as it is common in Sri Jagannath.

There in the Jagannath Dham all Bhogs or Prasads are known as Mahaprasad only and in Kali Yuga, He is worshipped as Daru Brahma. Daru means wood and Brahma means universal life force. DARU Brahma may be Brahma Daru.

A with cultural and religious heritage it is the glory of ODISHA. In the abundance of historical monuments and sculptures which are scattered throughout the state can be seen. An ethereal beauty which is seemed to none, can be proved from the architectural perfection of the temples, vied with the matchless grace of the sculptures. On the rich architectural beauty and rare works of art found there in ODISHA has been rightly said to be a Tourist’s Paradise where one can feast one’s eyes in abundance.

Specially at Puri the antiquity and origin of Jagannath worship is still shrouded in mystery. There are several traditions found in different books followed by legends and gain-sruties etc. in connection with the antiquity and the origin of Jagannath worship.

To trace the origin attempts have been made by scholars who have tried to justify their arguments which have no end at all.

Some tried to embrace Buddhism by dragging Goutam Buddha to the ninth Avatar of Jagannath which is basically wrong as Goutam was the son of a zamindar by name Sudhodan of Kapil vastu in the then Kalinga. This writer has mentioned this in his historical kabya “SAKYA-Sraman” clearly and candidly.

Here an attempt has been made to give a picture of the Daru-Brahma being worshipped in different places of ODISHA in a nut-shell. Places of worship of Lord Jagannath in entirety in ODISHA shall be provided later in a different connection.

Sri Sri Jagannath is being worshipped in different names in different places of ODISHA as follows. Which do not cover the entire state of ODISHA.

1. Sri CHAKA THAKUR is MARADA, POLSARA, CHIKITI, KHALLIKOTE in the district of Ganjam.

5. Sri DADHIBAMAN SWAMI at BUGUDA – (GANJAM) and at Kukudakhandi in Ganjam

8. Sri PATHA JAGANNATH at Chhatrapur – (GANJAM)

12. Sri LAXMI NRUSIMHA at Hinjilicut – (GANJAM)
13. Sri Jagannath Swami at Attagarh – (GANJAM

14. Sri Biranchi Narayan at Buguda – (GANJAM)

15. TIRIDA JAGANNATHY at TIRIDA in the distinct of Ganjam.
JAGATSIMHA PUR, In Different Districts
KENDRA PADA TOWN, In Different Districts
19. Sri Kalki Jagannath at NALAPATNA –(BALASORE)
20. Sri Banthia JAGANNATH at Moti Ganja
21. Sri Hari BALADEV JEW at Baripada,
Amarda, -- (Mayurbhanj)
22. BRAHMAPURA Sri Jagannath at JHADUAPADA – (Sambalpur)
23. Mahimamani Sri Jagannath at RAGADI
BANKI / Cuttack
24. Sri Jagannath Swami at ANCHAL GUDA
25. Sri Jagannath Swami at NABARANG PUR
26. Sri Jagannath Swami at GOVINDA PALLI
27. Sri Jagannath Swami at MALAKAN GIRI
28. Sri Jagannath Swami at PURUNA GADA
29. Sri Jagannath Swami at DEVAGADA TOWN
30. Sri Jagannath Swami at DEVAGADA
31. Sri Jagannath Swami at TEKALI
32. Sri HARI Jagannath at BOUDH TOWN (BOUDH)
33. Sri ATALA BALADEV Jew at Sankarpur
34. Sri Anant BALADEV at GUDA
JHADA POKHARIA Thana (Mayurbhanj)
41. Sri Kunja Bihari at KUJANG
43. Sri BALARAM at CHAU PADA / Patta Sundar Pur - Cuttack


46. Sri SIDHA BALARAM at Satya VADI Puri

49. Sri Patita PAVAN at RAJ KHADIALA
DOLA MUNDEI (Cuttack City)
& Jagat Sing Pur
51. Sri Jagna BARAHA at NANDA PADA Sambalpur
55. Sri Gopal Jew at REMEDA (P.O.) Khetarajpur in Sambalpur Dist
& at BOLANGIRA TOWN in Bolangiri Dist.
56. Sri Radha Madan Gopal at SAKHIPADA in Sambalpur Dist.
58. Sri PURUSHOTTAM at BIDANASHI in Cuttack City
PURUSHOTTAM DEV at TIGIRIA in Cuttack District
60. Sri TRIMURTI Jagannath at Gopinath Pur Sasan in Cuttack District
61. Sri Rouka-nath at BANAPUR,
and Khadiala, Nua Pada TRIKUTA BAHADA (foot of the hill)
Suvarn Pur
North Jajpur
63. DADHI BAMAN DEV at Chainipur (Puri)
64. Anant Basudev at Bhubaneswar infront of BinduSagar
65. Sri Bhagabat Basudev at PAIKARAPUR KHURDHA
66. Sri Ananteswar at Bhubaneswar
67. Sri Prasanna Dev at Basudevpur
68. Sri Siddha Jagannath at Madhuban (3 K.M. from Kendujhar)
69. Sri Charan Chaka Dev at Badahantu AADA Khurda
70. Sri Hari at Srihari Mandir, (Podapada) Boud
71. Sri Hari Hara at Ahivabandha
Rourkela (Sundargarh)
72. Sri Antargami at Prachi upatyaka
73. Sri Brundavan at Shankarpur Bhadrakh
74. Sri Rangadhar at Jirangara Gajapati
(Foot of Mahendragiri).

Saturday, November 12, 2011


(Copy right protected by Dr. G.S. Tripathy)

It cannot be exactly determined the date of origin of the ODIA BHASHA and its subsequent development. The spread of Prachya Prakrita might have taken the same course in ODISHA, known as Kalinga in ancient times in the history of India. The conquest of Kalinga by Ashok in 261BC is an important and well-known event. Before the epoch making event it is very difficult to ascertain the form of languages prevalent in the land of Bharat.

Long long ago when first Manu came to this earth from the other planet where he was living due to an OUGHA with his nearest relatives; he tried to teach his mother tongue Sanskrit to the then people here on this earth when there was no India, no Pakistan and no specific countries as they are today. With his Space-ship first Manu landed at Sapta-sindhu as per the indication given in Vedas. At that time Sapta Sindhu was surrounded by seven prominent rivers and three seas like Parabata, Saraswata and Arbabat.

“OUGHA” means flood-either due to water or snow is not specifically mentioned in Vedas. Harappa and Mahenjodaro civilization, which we call, is the sole gift of the then Arayas who came from the same planet to this earth along with, Manu with their technology, which cannot be imagined by the so called modern scientists of date.

The scholars who say that the Arayas have come from middle Africa, Egypt, Europe etc to Saptasindhu, are totally wrong. After staying in Sapta Sindhu, gradually these Arayas have gone to European countries and to other places like Irak, Iran, Pakistan etc, to eke out their livelihood.

Aryan influence predominated gradually spreading from Sapta Sindhu civilization towards the east of present India.

After the extinction of the Magadhan dominance, a branch of Chedi dynasty ruled over the Kalinga Empire. The Emperor Kharavela was the third member of this dynasty who was a scion of northern origin. When and how this northern Chedi dynasty established itself in Kalings is not known. But it is an admitted fact that they belonged to Aryan origin without any doubt. Kharvel has been styled as “AIRA” or “Aryan” in the Hathigumpha inscription. This word “AIRA” has been taken to be a corruption of the word ARYA or Aryan. In this epigraph the titles given to him are purely of Sanskrit origin. The Hathigumpha Prasasti has been composed in the Sanskrit origin only. The names of his relatives found in this epigraph are of Sanskrit origin. With a sacred language of Sanskrit Janism was also of Sanskrit origin from the north of India professed by emperor Kharvela.

From the short inscriptions on the Udaygiri Caves, names of his father-in-law and some of his officers found prominently which are of Sanskrit origin. With a sacred language of Sanskrit Origin, Janism was a religion of northern India.

By some scholars the names of some of his probable successors, VADUKA Kudupsiri are taken as of Dravidian origin though it has not been accepted by all.

As of Sanskrit origin, the name of Kharavel too has been interpreted meaning the ocean.

Some of the facts have been analysed above is to show that the Chedies of the Kalinga were of the northern origin and they Patronized and spoke a language of Sanskrit origin.

Assigned to the third century A.D., the Bhadrakha inscription of GANA is Prakrit. But there are certain words in this inscription which do not follow the Prakrit grammar and language. In this epigraph a word “MEDHA” is used. This seems to be a word of local language then Prevailing in then Kalings.

Upto the beginning of the Gupta Period, Prakrit was the language in all documents in then ODISHA.

This continues, it seems, up to 4th Century A.D. But all the epigraphs of the later Gupta period found in ODISHA, was in Sanskrit. Sanskrit was prevalent during the time of all the ruling dynasties of ODISHA like the vigrahas and the Matharas who have used Sanskrit in their charters. In their copper plates all the later dynasties like the Shilodbhavas, Bhaumas and Somavanisis used the language Sanskrit only. From the fourth fifth century A.D. onwards a change in the official language from Prakrit to Sanskrit seems to have taken place.

Whether the direct administration of the imperial Guptas was ever introduced in the ODISHA for which scholars are still uncertain.

In the field of culture and religion during their rule, ODISHA felt the influence of the mighty change that took place in northern India and there is no doubt about it.

During the Gupta period there was revival of Hinduism and of Sanskrit which had its repercussion on ODISHA too. The local language must have been influenced and became Sanskritic in their origin and vocabulary.

During the rule of Matharas, Panchatantra was composed, who were the contemporaries of the Guptas, in ODISHA. All the languages of this country must have been influenced by this great work of Panchatantra.

There are some places in India till-today where people are very much interested to speak Sanskrit and learn through Sanskrit only. Their mother tongue is Sanskrit only. The places are MATUR and HOSALI of KARNATAK, ‘Jhari’ “MOHADA”, “BAGHUAAR” of MADHYA PRADESH, GANODA village of BAUSAWADA district in Rajsthan.

In the SIMOGA district of Karnataka there is a village by name MATUR, as aforesaid, where only two thousand people are living. 95% (percent) of the people of this village are speaking Sanskrit only. When an outsider comes to that village, at once he hears – “BHABATAH NAMA KIM”

In place of “hallo” they speak “Hari Om”

All most everyone of that village, irrespective of Children up to grownups – they speak only Sanskrit. They fully understand the Indian traditional values including Muslims also whose children too speak Sanskrit.

They are not lagging behind in any respect some people of that village are serving as professors and teachers in different universities of India and abroad. Some Engineers are also there in that village.

Many outsider students are also coming to that village to learn Sanskrit. History of Matur is very old. About 500 years back people established there in that village since the reign of Krishna Dev Roy the famous king of the then VIJAYA NAGAR.

“JHARI” in Rajagarh district of Madhya Pradesh contains a population of only one thousand. They speak flaw-less and beautiful Sanskrit even when they work in the field. Even the Bullocks in the field do not find any difficulty to understand the order of the cultivator in Sanskrit.

In BAGHUWAR and MOHAD also people do utilize Sanskrit language only since morning to evening in their social duties. They do not understand whether it is useful to know Sanskrit at all for their future upliftment in the society or in the country.

Many foreign scholars are of opinion that Sanskrit is by far the better than almost all the richest languages of the world.

But in ODISHA Sanskrit was never the spoken language. But from the rock edicts available during the period of Kharvela and after the victory of Kalings by Chandrasoka, it appears, there must be pali and Prakrit as spoken language in Orissa as the rock edicts here in ODISHA contain Prakrit mixed with pali in many cases.

But to evolve a language of its own, ODISHA must have taken centuries which became Sanskritic in origin. In any document so far discovered, no example of earliest form of the ODIA Bhasha has come down to us. Certain words have been found in the ODIA inscription here and there which are of Sanskritic origin. We find the word like Thira, Pruva, Tambra, Paduma etc in the Bhauma copper plate records which can be pronounced in Sanskrit as Sthira, Purva, TAMBRA and Padma respectively. The influence of local language is discernible clearly in the names like Nannta, Bhimata, Lona, Bhara and Unmata simha etc.

It must have existed in a formative stage during the period of the Sailoddhavas, the Bhaums and the Somavamasis if at all it existed.

From the language of the central India people of Odra Country spoke a different language according to Yuan’ Chwang. Family affinities with the language of the then ODISHA especially at the time of Yuam Chwang had with the language then available in the northern and central India. They differed in the past as they do at present even though all the Northern Eastern and central India belong to one family group. Ganjam and Puri district together known as Kongada. Being adjacent to Andhra Pradesh Kongada has been influenced by the Andhra Pradesh only.

It is true Yuan Chwang did not learn the languages of India. Also he did not carry out any research work on them. He formed an impression about the language of these places during his sojourn in kongada and Odra Countries. Hence too much importance should not be given on his reports.

By ninth-tenth century A.D. the present ODISHA was consisted with three cultural and political units known as Koshal, Utkal and Kongada under the Soma Vamasis.

About 931 A.D. Jajati. I occupied the then ODISHA. As a result by the people and by the ministers of the state, Jajati-II was requested to be the king of these afore said, three distinct territories. To the coastal region of ODISHA the capital of Somavamsi Kingdom was shifted from Koshal especially during the period of Jajati II. The growth of a common language in the then ODISHA was fostered due to these political changes.

The people of Koshal at that point of time spoke a language akin to Bhojpuri and Prakrit while Magadhi had the affinity with the language of the coastal strip. A new language came to be formed as Oriya which came into existence with the mixture of two branches of Prachya Prakrit along with Magadhi. From the fact that the elements of the language of the coastal strip, the land of the odras predominated in it, the nomenclature seems to be have been derived. That the Koshal tract at no time could produce literature of its own is another reason seems to be.

But no specimen of ODIA Language of the Soma Vamasi period has come down to us as the oriya language seems to have been born under these circumstances.

We got from the stone and copper plate inscriptions a number of specimens of the ODIA language provided to us by the Ganga Period. From a bilingual inscription (ODIA and Tamil) of the reign of Vira Narasimhadev discovered at Bhubaneswar these Spcimens are found. During the Ganga Period with indubitable evidences the ODIA Language had considerably developed. Dr. K.B.Tripathy in his book “the evolution of oriya Language and script” has published the text of many inscriptions except the Sonepur stone inscription of Bhanudev I.

These records as described by Sri Tripathy show the examples of a stereotyped language generally used in documents only. That there was a literary language in Orissa they do not produce any evidence on this score.

During the Ganga period, some ODIA scholars think that the oriya literature had made its appearance. By the MadalaPanji, they take their stand. From the reign of Chodagangadev they maintain that this chronicle had started to be written. To the first part of the twelfth century A.D., they thus trace back the origin of the oriya literature through the unreliable character of MadalaPanji known to the historians.

In his Artavallabha Mohanty Memorial Lectures 1964, Prof S.K. Chatterjee seems to have been led by the popular view. He has assigned therefore the beginning of MadalaPanji to the reign of Chodagangadev only.

The long proclamation purported to have been issued by the Ganga King Anangabhima devIII, which has been incorporated in the MadalaPanji, has been taken as a very good specimen of oriya prose by him. In this so called Proclamation, he has not noticed several anachronisms which have proved that it could not have been composed in the Ganga period only. They were being handed down orally from generation to generation not only during the Ganga period but even much earlier folk songs existed in the then Orissa.

This gives us some indication about the early form of oriya language and literature when studied deeply about these songs.

The date of the origins of Khanna - Vachana cannot be determined which is the earliest literature of Orissa.

Thursday, May 5, 2011

Vaisnavism in ODISHA

(Copy right protected by Dr. G.S. Tripathy)

Cult of Vaisnavism and its origin goes back to the pre-rigevdic period when Vishnu was conceived as a member of the solar family. From very early times Vaisnavism might have existed in the then ODISHA. This can be connected with the archeological monuments relating to the early medieval period. Holding Sankha, Chakra, gada and Padma Vishnu makes his appearance as a ­subsiding deity on the Temples of Odisha belonging to 6th- 7th- 8th century of Bhubaneswar and other places. An image of Vishnu with distinctive attributes had been enshrined originally in the central niche of the southern facade in the Swarnnajalesure temple at Bhubaneswar assigned to seventh century A.D. was removed to the Orissa State Museum by Prof K.C. Panigrahi. On the outer walls of this Temple, certain scenes from the life of Sri Ramchandra have been depicted out of which some scenes are clearly identifiable and discernible. Especially the scenes of Ramchandra cutting down Sapta-salas, killing of Vali, and of Veer Hanuman preparing for Flying to Lankapur or quite prominent. That the Ramayana story was fully known to the builders of this temple, has been proved beyond doubt with these panels of sculptures providing panoramic views of the life of Sri Ramchandra.

An assembly of all the main deities of the Brahmanical Pantheon has been found in which vision is quity prominent with the scenes of marriage of Siva appeared on the Bharateswar, Parsurameswar and the Swarnagaleswar temples in Bhubaneswar. Vaisnavi makes her appearance with the distinctive attribute GARUDA on the Pedestals in the group of Saptamatrukas to be found in the Parsurameswar, vaital and Mukteswar temples in Bhubaneswar. Into the sculptures of the early medieval Period, Vishnu and his female Counterpart have thus been introduced in a very nice way. Vishnu images as the presiding deities of temple shrines are not tracable in the Coastal belt of ODISHA.

At Gandharadi about fifteen kilo meters from Boudha One solitary Vishnu temple is still in existence in the hilly region to the surprise of many visitors. On the northern façade of the vaital temple an image of Harihara is to be seen in which a combined figures of Siva and Vishnu are clearly prominent. As a part of Siva, Vishnu appears here but as an independent deity. On the southern facade of Markandeswar temple a panel of sculptures appears where Brahma and Vishnu are paying homage to Siva with folded hands. It has been thus established the superiority of Lord Siva over Vishnu in many temples in the minds of Siva Bhaktas.

On the temples of Bhubaneswar Child Krishna makes his appearance. In the ODISHA state Museum, an architectural fragment containing a Panel of sculpturs showing the scene of KALIYA DALAN has been preserved, Bhubaneswar was its Provenance. Its stylistic development indicates to a temple which is not later than the seventh Century A.D. On the southern façade of the Vimana of the lord Lingraj temple these is an appearance of the figures of Nanda Yasoda, and the child srikrishna which attracts the attention of many. Almost in the same form at the north east corner of Brahmeswar temple it is found on its Western façade. Nanda is a bearded figure in both the panels’ fitting opposite Yasoda. Where Yasoda is engaged in Churning Curds. It is shown that child Srikrishna is sitting by the side of the Curd vessel.

The presiding deity is an attractive and beautiful visnu image with all his attributes at Jalauka near Chhatia in the district of Cuttack in a temple with four subsidiary ones in four corners of the compound. It is still in existence in a tolerably good condition. It is a contemporary of Mukteswar temple at Bhubaneswar built during somavanpi period. In all likelihood in the same period, a Subhastambha had been built at Jajpur which is a beautiful monolithic Pillar but due to vandalism the pillar had been pulled down. The Subhastambha is certainly a Vaisnavita monument.

Towards the close of the twelfth century, Swapneswardev, the Commander -in-chief of the Ganga dynasty built Megheswar temple which contains on its southern façade a small panel of sculpture depicting godhan-haran. Srikrishna is seated on a couch or stool with some female figures in the scene. Those figures must be Gopis on his sides with a herd of cows on the pedestals. On the right side of the top corner, this is a little bearded figure to be found is witnessing the whole scene should be identified with Brahma only.

On the bank of Vindusagar, Anant-Vasudev temple is situated. This is a vaisnavite shrive which had originally a commemorative inscription which is now preserved in the hall of the Royal Asiatic society of Great Britain in,London.In the epigraph it is stated that the temple was built for Srikrishna and BALARAMA .On the bank of Vindusagar by Chandrika Devi who was the daughter of Ananga bhim Dev(III) in the Saka Year 1200, Corresponding to 1278 A.D. Paramardi Dev, the ornament of Haihaya family married Chandrika Devi who built the Anant-Basudev temple in memorium to her husband who died in a battle fighting against Muslims in Bengal.

Bhaum queen Tribhuvan Mahadevi. I was a great devotee of visnu.She created some Vaisnava shrines but no temple of Vishnu had been built by her.

On the Balustrades of the window on the northern side of the Anant-Vasudev temple, the figures of Ram-Laxman-Sita and Hanuman appear which proves clearly that Ram was considered to be an incarnation of Vishnu as they are found place in a temple meant for Anant- Basudev. Near the balustraded window in the north, a few other cult images like Laxmi and Saraswati appear on the Jagmohana of the Anant-Basudev temple and no doubt that they are the members of the family of Vishnu. On the southern and northern niches of this temple, there are free-standing images of the Boar and Dwarf incarnation which are also enshrined respectively. On the balustrades of the window consisting of Srikrishna & Gopis to the southern side of the temple there were five images out of which three balustrades have become detached and placed in a nearby small temple by the side of vindusagar.

The ten incarnations of Vishnu are well known to the people of ODISHA clearly shows from the sculptures of the Anant-Vasudev temple built in 1278 A.D. All the incarnations are identical with Vishnu representing his different forms including the last two incarnations by name Buddha & Kalki. It should be pointed out in this connection, that the 9th incarnation of Vishnu related to Goutam Buddha by many is absolutely wrong as Goutam Buddha was the son of a Zamindar at Kapilvastu in the then Kalinga and he was a refarmering. With the influence of Geet-Govind by Jaydev, these ten incarnations have been taken as granted by many but it is not correct at all. However people of Orissa were familiar with this incarnation. Nrisimha appears to have received the special attention of the kings and people of ODISHA out of all these incarnation. In the compound of Lingaraj temple a temple of Laxmi- Nrisimha is to be found and from the days of Gangas Nrishimnath temple at Simhachalan has developed into a great shrine.

In the twelfth Century, Gitagovind had been composed by Jaydev. This appears to have been responsible for popularizing the ten incarnations including that of Buddha, where Buddha cannot be taken as an incarnation. In the fifteenth century Sarala Das composed Mahabharata where there are references to necklaces with the incarnations of Vishnu and that their special attributes were well known even to the artisans of ODISHA.

During the Ganga period, Narahari Tirtha and Jaydev appear to have made Vaisnavism more popular in the then ODISHA. A disciple of Anant tirth, Narahari Tirtha lived in ODISHA for long twelve years and exercised a great influence on the Ganga royal family who was the founder of the DVAIT philosophy. He worked as governor for some years and acted as regent to the boy king Narasimha II. Narahari placed the boy king when he came up age and then went to his guru with the images of Rama, Sita. This was his original mission assigned to him by Madhab Tirtha. For the spread of Vaisnavism of his own sect in the then Orissa & Kalings, numerous inscriptions of Simhachalan and Srikurumanatha have been testified. Due to his influence, perhaps, the later Ganga kings alternately bore the names of Narashimha and Bhanu where Bhanu being considered an aspect of Vishnu. Ultimately the sun cult merged into Vaisnav cult in Orissa. As an aspect of Vishnu, the sun was conceived and was called Viranchi Narayan later on. The only two known examples of saura monuments are the temples of Konark and the beautiful temple of PALIA in the Balasore district. In Dhenkanal district two colossal images of images of PADMANABHA or sessayi Vishnu are to be found near Talcher.

On the stony bed of the river Brahmani at Sarang a colossal image of PADMANABHA measuring thirty two feet in height is also to be found which has special attributes of Vishnu in this form. Another colossal image of Padmanabha measuring fifty one feet and a half in length is to be found at Bhimkand, 18 miles from Talcher. To the eighth and ninth century A.D. these images can be assigned.

From this various places of ODISHA, stray images of vision assignable to the later going period and the Suryavansi period have been discovered. Huge images of Krishna-Vasudev have been discovered in the Prachi valley of the Puri district. But with the special attributes of flute and peacock feather of Krishna images are rarely found. Probably belonging to the transitory period of the 14th & 15th century A.D. One such image is now preserved in Orissa State Museum. With four hands, two of which hold a flute, the deity stands cross-legged. This is an indication, that Krishna-Vasudev of the earlier conception was being merged into Krishna the flute- holder who became famous for his alliance with the Gopis.

Specially by Jaydev, the cult of Krishna Gopi vallaba was made in popular the then ODISHA. As described in the Geet-govinda, the form of Vishnu with Radha as his consort represents the conception of Vishnu of the later Sahajiya sect. The religious philosophy expounded in Geet- govinda had not been accepted by the earlier Poets of the then ODISHA even though it might have been popular. In the sixteenth century Oriya Bhagabat had been composed by Jaganath Das. It does not refer to Radha at all. Oriya Bhagabata is not an exact translation of Sanskrit Bhagabata Mahapurana. At a number of points, the poet has deviated from the original. Radha could have been introduced easily by him but he has not done at all. In their works the other members of Panchasakhas have also avoided Radha scrupulously. Sarala Das also has ridiculed the tenants of Sahajiya sect as propounded by Gitagovinda.

To all sects, Sarala Das has shown respects in his writing but there is one exception to this general pattern of his religious behaviour. SAHAJIYAS have been the targets of Sarala Dasa’s satires. In the fifth can to Geet-govinda there is an episode in which a husband & a wife were out at night to meet their Paramours. In intense darkener they lost their ways and met each other. They soon became engaged in copulation without knowing each other. Through the letterance aver of Soft words at the time of engagement, they could recognize each other eventually. In his Adi Parva, Sarla Das has utilized this episode satirically in his own way On Srikrishna.

A pattern of vaisnavism found in the Gita-govinda was different from the one that followed by ODISHA Poets till the sixteenth century A.D. From the time of the long- sojourn of Sri-chaitanya at Puri till his death in 1533A.D, a change in the conception of Krishna cult however took place in ODISHA. This great saint never followed nor favoured the type of love between Srikrishna and SriRadhe as described in Geet-govind. The love between SriKrishna and SriRadha is to be emotionalized and idealized according to him which had no relation with carnal desire. Within the meaning that he had given into it his followers in the then ODISHA and elsewhere did not keep in love as Preached by his Writing on Krishna Charita, all the later Vaisnava ODIA poets followed more Jayadev than Srichaitanaya in dealing with the love between Srikrishna & SriRadha. With a full description of sexual intercourse almost all of them ended their works as it is to be found in Gitagovinda. DeenKrishna, Abimanyha, Bhakta Charan, Baladev, and Gopal Krishna have all followed the model of love in their works between SriRadhe& Srikrishna as it is described in Gitagovinda. But they had one deviation in their works. They have not represented Radha as a Khandita woman forsaken by her lover like Jaydev.

In 1568, the then ODISHA was Occupied by Afgans and it became benighted country thereafter. The ODIA vaisnava Poets were very much influenced by the petty chiefs who use their Patrons in the dark age that followed in the then ODISHA. Their Patrons favoured the type of love depicted in the Gitagovinda. During this period, a class of ODIA literature known as VOLIS originated. On the people at large, it must have exercised a great demoralizing influence. For controlling their sexual relation between man and woman, the volis dealt with love between Srikrishna & Sriradha in a form that transgressed all the limits prescribed by the human society. SriKrishna is described enjoying sexual pleasure in various guises, such as garland maker, the dealer of ornaments, the boat-man, the dealer of brass utensils even as a tiger or a mouse in their works of these poets. In all conceivable forms in fact, Srikrishna was described as a voluptuously lewd person whose only business was to enjoy sexual pleasure. But it is totally & basically wrong because these poets were influenced by the Gitagovinda only.

ODISHA produced a vaisnava literature so rich, so varied & so great in poetic attainments and so great in number that its parallel can hardly be found in any other contemporary literature of this lenivense specially in the sixteenth century A.D. But this unparalleled literature was vitiated by a debased form of religions philosophy forming its theme.

At a very late stage of her history, it is to be noted that SriRadhe as a deity or consort of SriKrishna was introduced into the Indian literature specially in ODISHAN religion and culture. In the vast Indian Sanskrit literature except in a single verse of the saptasati of HALA of uncertain date Radhe does not appear at all. In which state of India the character Radhe was created at first that is also not known.

Before the time of Jaydev, it is stated, in the history of Bengal, Probably Radha was a Bengali innovation. We do not know how for it is true. On the other hand, Sri P. Acharya of ODISHA maintains in his article entitled “RADHA-KRISHNA MURTI PUJARA ITIHASA” in his (“ODISARA PRATNA TATTVA O ANYANYA PRAVANDHA, 1969-PP411) that Radhe Originated in ODISHA.

Before the sixteenth century A.D. the Image of RADHA was not associated with the image of Gopal or Srikrishna to be found in ODISHA –is a fact, be if as it may. Originally the image of Radha was not associated that with the shrines of KHIRACHORA Gopinath at Remuna in the Balesore district or Sakhigopal in Puri district. There are also other shrines of Gopinath or Gopal at Balianta. Sarakare and Hirapur in Puri district besides these two famous shrines. No Radha image was originally associated in them. Near Jajpur we find Gopinath images of Gopinath Pur and of Malatira near Agarpada in the Balasore district had similarly no Radha image at all by their sides. Sri P. Acharya had mentioned in his article that a Radhe image had been taken to Brindaram from ORISSA to be associated with SriKrishna.

We known very well Sri Narahari TIRTHA took the images of Rama & Sita from the then Orissa and presented them to his teacher Madhave Tirtha.

But it does not indicate that the cults of these images originated & in the then ODISHA with the transportation of these images of Rama Sita & Radhe to the other regions of India from Orissa. That ODISHA had the best sculptors who produced most beautiful cult images only it indicates.

From the sixteenth century onwards the entry of Radhe into ODISHA religion and culture througly changed their original Character and gave a different turn to her history.

Sri Chaitanya demoralized ODISHA and the ODIAS also is acceptable with the fall of Pratap Rudra Dev and his invincible army. This is the view of Prof. R.D. Banerjee.

The then Oriyas were influenced by Jaydev & by Sri Chaitanya also.

Monday, March 21, 2011

Arta Uparaga by Gouri Sankar Tripathy

For Read online this Book click on the following link.

Arta Uparaga

Thursday, March 3, 2011